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THE HOUSES OF LANCASTER, YORK and THE WAR
OF THE ROSES
The tables below outlines the major players needed to understand Richard III
Delderfield, Eric. Kings and Queens of England. N.Y. Stein and Day, 1972.
Sacco, Peter. Shakespeare's English Kings. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1977.
These sites provide excellent resources including
The Yorkists (Edmund, Duke of York) and the Lancasterians (John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster)
|Edward III||1312-1377||his sons begin the war||6 sons and five daughters--their infighting begins the war; his heir, Edward the Black Prince, predeceased him.|
|Richard II||1367-1400||Angevin||murdered by Bolingbroke who becomes Henry IV. Shakespeare portrays him as week and ineffective|
|Henry IV||1367-1413||Lancaster||ruled well, plagued with rebellion--died of leprosy in bed|
|Henry V||1387-1422||Lancaster||the ideal hero king--wars in France; Marries Catherine of France. Died of dysentery|
|Henry VI||1421-1471||Lancaster||becomes king at 9 months--regents rule; insane during his life; Queen Margaret rallies his forces; Yorkists under Edward, Duke of York mark that faction's revival (Battle of Towton)|
|Edward IV||1442-1483||York||His marriage to Elizabeth Woodville causes resentment. His two sons, Edward V and Richard are allegedly killed by Richard III.|
|Edward V||1470-1483||York||Allegedly killed by Richard III--in Shakespeare taken as a fact|
|Richard III||1452-1485||York||The Archvillain in Shakespeare, but perhaps not in history. Killed at the Battle of Bosworth Field in 1485. Tudor Dynasty begins.|