Return to the World Literature Course
A PERSPECTIVE ON OEDIPUS
with new primary sources and commentary below on the Oracle,
Thucydides, Themes and Motifs in the play.
(Links to other relevant web sites are provided.)
FOR SOPHOCLES, THE WILL OF THE GODS IS ABSOLUTE; ONE'S HUBRIS WILL RESULT IN TRAGEDY. CAN OEDIPUS THEN IN ANY SENSE BE FREE? MUST HE KILL AND MARRY?
Study the excerpts below which trace the concept of fate from Hesiod to the classical period. What did the concept mean originally? Did it evolve?
Two commentators whom you might consult are:
Graves, Robert. The Greek Myths. 2 vols. New York: Penguin Books, 1991.
Knox, Bernard. Oedipus at Thebes: Sophocles' Tragic Hero and His Time. Yale University Press, 1998.
NIGHT BORE THE RUTHLESS...MOIRAI
KLOTHO, LACHESIS, AND ATROPOS, WHO WHEN MEN ARE BORN
GIVE THEM THEIR SHARE OF THINGS GOOD AND BAD.
THEY WATCH FOR THE TRANSGRESSIONS OF MEN AND GODS,
AND THE DREADFUL ANGER OF THESE GODDESSES NEVER ABATES
UNTIL WRONGDOERS ARE PUNISHED WITH HARSHNESS
BANEFUL NIGHT BORE NEMESIS, TOO, A WOE FOR MORTALS...
HESIOD: SHIELD OF HERCULES:
THERE WERE MEN FIGHTING IN WAR LIKE HARNESSES...AND BEHIND THEM
THE DUSKY FATES, GNASHING THEIR WHITE FANGS, LOWERING. GRIM,
BLOODY AND UNAPPROACHABLE, STRUGGLED FOR THOSE WHO WERE
FALLING. FOR THEY ALL WERE LONGING TO DRINK DARK BLOOD. SO
SOON AS THEY CAUGHT A MAN OVERTHROWN OR FALLING NEWLY
WOUNDED, ONE OF THEM WOULD CLASP HER GREAT CLAWS ABOUT HIM.
AND HIS SOUL WOULD GO DOWN TO HADES...AND WHEN THEY HAD
SATISFIED THEIR SOULS WITH HUMAN BLOOD, THEY WOULD CAST THAT ONE
BEHIND THEM, AND RUSH BACK INTO THE TUMULT AND FRAY.
CLOTHO AND LACHESIS WERE OVER THEM AND ATROPOS LESS TALL THAN THEY,
A GODDESS OF NO GREAT FRAME, YET SUPERIOR TO THE OTHERS AND THE
ELDEST OF THEM...AND THEY ALL MADE A FIERCE FIGHT OVER ONE POOR
WRETCH, GLARING EVILY AT ONE OTHER WITH FURIOUS EYES AND FIGHTING EQUALLY WITH CLAWS AND HANDS.
THE KING DISMISSED THE PRIEST WITH A BRUTAL ORDER
RINGING IN HIS EARS: NEVER AGAIN OLD MAN
LET ME CATCH SIGHT OF YOU...
THE GIRL: I WON'T GIVE UP THE GIRL...
AGAMEMNON--FURIOUS, HIS DARK HEART FILLED TO THE BRIM,
BLAZING WITH ANGER NOW, HIS EYES LIKE SEARING FIRE
WITH A SUDDEN, KILLING LOOK HE WHEELED ON CALCHAS FIRST:
"SEER OF MISERY...NEVER A WORD THAT WORKS TO MY ADVANTAGE!
ALWAYS MISERY WARMS YOUR HEART, YOUR PROPHECIES...
NOW AGAIN YOU DIVINE GOD'S WILL FOR THE ARMIES
WHY THE DEADLY ARCHER
MULTIPLIES OUR PAINS, BECAUSE I REFUSED THE
GLITTERING PRICE FOR THE YOUNG GIRL CHRYSEIS..
INDEED I PREFER HER...
BUT I AM WILLING TO GIVE HER BACK, EVEN SO,
IT THAT IS BEST FOR ALL. WHAT I REALLY WANT
IF TO KEEP MY PEOPLE SAFE, NOT SEE THEM DYING...(BOOK I)
NO DOUBT SOME MORTAL HAS SUFFERED A DEARER LOSS THAN THIS
A BROTHER BORN IN THE SAME WOMB OR EVEN A SON...
HE GRIEVES, HE WEEPS, BUT THEN HIS TEARS ARE THROUGH.
THE FATES HAVE GIVEN MORTALS HEARTS THAT CAN ENDURE,
BUT THIS ACHILLES--FIRST HE SLAUGHTERS HECTOR.... (BOOK XXIV)
BUT ONCE THE SUN STOOD STRIDING AT HIGH NOON
THEN FATHER ZEUS HELD OUT HIS SACRED GOLDEN SCALES:
IN THEM HE PLACED TWO FATES OF DEATH THAT LAYS MEN LOW
ONE FOR THE TROJAN HORSEMEN, ONE FOR ARGIVES,..
DOWN WENT ACHAEA'S DAY OF DOOM, ACHAEA'S FATE
SETTLING DOWN ON THE EARTH THAT FEEDS US ALL...(BOOK VIII)
AND HOW COULD HECTOR HAVE FLED
THE FATES OF DEATH SO LONG?....
AND BRILLIANT ACHILLES SHOOK HIS HEAD AT THE ARMIES...
THEN FATHER ZEUS HELD OUT HIS SACRED GOLDEN SCALES:
IN THEM HE PLACED TWO FATES OF DEATH THAT LAYS MEN LOW
ONE FOR ACHILLES, ONE FOR HECTOR BREAKER OF HORSES
AND GRIPPING THE BEAM MID-SHAFT THE FATHER RAISED IT HIGH
AND DOWN WENT HECTOR'S DAY OF DOOM, DRAGGING HIM DOWN
TO THE STRONG HOUSE OF DEATH--AND GOD APOLLO LEFT HIM... (BOOK XXII)
[As Zeus wonders whether to save his son Sarpedon from Patrolcus...]
...MY HEART IS TORN IN TWO AS I TRY TO WEIGH ALL THIS
SHALL I PLUCK HIM UP NOW...OR BEAT HIM DOWN AT PATROLCUS...
BUT QUEEN HERA, HER EYES WIDE, PROTESTED STRONGLY
"DREAD MAJESTY, SON OF CRONUS--WHAT ARE YOU SAYING
A MAN, A MERE MORTAL, HIS DOOM SEALED LONG AGE?
YOU'D SET HIM FREE FROM ALL THE PAINS OF DEATH?
DO AS YOU PLEASE, ZEUS...
BUT NONE OF THE DEATH LESS GODS WILL EVER PRAISE YOU... (BOOK XVI)
THEN AMONG THEM, THE FATHER OF MEN AND GODS BEGAN TO
SPEAK..."LO, YOU NOW, HOW VAINLY MORTAL MEN DO BLAME THE GODS! FOR FROM US THEY SAY COMES EVIL, WHEREAS THEY EVEN OF THEMSELVES
THROUGH THE BLINDNESS OF THEIR OWN HEARTS, HAVE SORROWS
BEYOND THAT WHICH IS ORDAINED.(BOOK I)
PLATO: THE REPUBLIC:
ROUND ABOUT...SIT THREE OTHER FIGURES, EACH ON A THRONE THE THREE FATES DAUGHTERS OF NECESSITY LACHESIS, CLOTHO AND ATROPOS THEY SING LACHESIS OF THINGS PAST, CLOTHO OF THINGS PRESENT, ATROPOS OF THINGS TO COME. ON THEIR ARRIVAL THE SOULS HAD TO GO STRAIGHT BEFORE LACHEIS , AND AN INTERPRETER FIRST MARSHALED THEM IN ORDER AND TOOK FROM THE LAP OF LACHESIS A NUMBER OF LOTS AND PATTERNS OF LIFE. . . AND PROCLAIMED "THIS IS THE WORLD OF LACHESIS MAIDEN DAUGHTER OF NECESSITY. SOULS OF A DAY HERE YOU MUST BEGIN ANOTHER ROUND OF MORTAL LIFE WHOSE END IS DEATH. YOU SHALL CHOOSE YOUR OWN, AND HE ON WHOM THE LOT FALLS SHALL BE THE FIRST TO CHOOSE THE LIFE WHICH THEN SHALL OF NECESSITY BE HIS...HE FAULT LIES NOT WITH GOD BUT WITH THE SOUL THAT MAKES THE CHOICE... ANYONE WHO DURING HIS EARTHLY LIFE FAITHFULLY SEEKS WISDOM AND WHOSE LOST DOES NOT FALL AMONG THE LAST MAY OPT NOT ONLY FOR HAPPINESS IN THIS LIFE BUT A JOURNEY FROM THIS WORLD TO THE NEXT AND BACK AGAIN THAT WILL NOT LIKE OVER THE STONY GROUND ...(BOOK X)
EVEN GOD IS NEVER TO BE SEEN CONTENDING AGAINST NECESSITY.
...BESIDE REASON, WE MUST ALSO SET THE RESULTS OF NECESSITY. FOR THIS WORLD CAME INTO BEING FROM A MIXTURE OF NECESSITY AND INTELLIGENCE. INTELLIGENCE CONTROLLED NECESSITY BY PERSUADING IT FOR THE MOST PART TO BRING ABOUT THE BEST RESULT, AND IT WAS BY THIS SUBORDINATION OF NECESSITY TO REASONABLE PERSUASION THAT THE UNIVERSE WAS ORIGINALLY CONSTITUTED AS IT IS.
(This has been termed the most important concept in Greek philosophy).
[Oedipus to Creon:]
THE SOUL OF TRUST, MY LOYAL FRIEND FROM THE START
STEALS AGAINST ME...SO HUNGRY TO OVERTHROW ME
HE SETS THIS WIZARD ON ME, THIS SCHEMING QUACK,
THIS FORTUNE TELLER PEDDLING LIES, EYES PEELED
FOR HIS OWN PROFIT--SEER BLIND IN HIS CRAFT!
COME HERE YOU PIOUS FRAUD. TELL ME
WHEN DID YOU EVER PROVE YOURSELF A PROPHET?
WHEN THE SPHINX ... KEPT HER DEATHWATCH HERE,
WHY SILENT THEN, NOT A WORD TO SET OUR PEOPLE FREE?
NOT A WORD...
THERE WAS A RIDDLE, NOT FOR SOME PASSER-BY TO SOLVE-.
IT CRIED ON FOR A PROPHET? WHERE WERE YOU?
DID YOU RISE TO THE CRISIS? NOT A WORD?
YOU AND YOUR BIRDS, YOUR GODS--NOTHING
NO, BUT I CAME BY, OEDIPUS THE IGNORANT
I STOPPED THE SPHINX. WITH NO HELP FROM THE BIRDS
THE FLIGHT OF MY OWN INTELLIGENCE HIT THE MARK.
STUDY THE TEXTS COMPARATIVELY. WHAT DO YOU CONCLUDE?
II. A CULTURE IN CRISIS:
BASED ON THE FOLLOWING PICTURE FROM THE WASHINGTON POST (by John Hale of Louisville University), MONDAY, FEBRUARY 4, 2002. What do you think the accompanying article by Guy Gugliotta, suggests in terms of a cultural crisis Sophocles found most disturbing?
The text reads:
DIVINATION BY GAS: Researchers say that new studies indicate that faults that run under the Temple of Apollo at Delphi leak gases such as methane, ethane and ethylene, which may have intoxicated the legendary oracle.
In part the article notes, "...Hale said, the team [of scientists] is challenging a century of research that held 'that the priests and oracle [at Delphi] were deceiving the public and inventing stories' to boost the shrine's importance." (p. A6).
NOTE THE TEXT: ll. 404-453:
TEIR. It is not Creon harms thee, but thyself.
DIP. O wealth, and sovereignty, and noblest skill
Surpassing skill in life that men admire,
How great the envy dogging all your steps!
If for the sake of kingship, which the state
Hath given, unasked for, freely in mine hands,
Creon the faithful, found mine earliest friend,
Now seeks with masked attack to drive me forth,
And hires this wizard, plotter of foul schemes,
A vagrant mountebank, whose sight is clear
For pay alone, but in his art stone-blind.
Is it not so? When wast thou known a seer?
Why, when the monster with her song was here,
Didst thou not give our countrymen thy help?
And yet the riddle lay above the ken
Of common men, and called for prophets skill.
And this thou showdst thou hadst not, nor by bird,
Nor any God made known; but then I came,
I, dipus, who nothing knew, and slew her, 0
With mine own counsel winning, all untaught
By flight of birds. And now thou wouldst expel me,
And thinkst to take thy stand by Creons throne.
But, as I think, both thou and he that plans
With thee, will to your cost attack my fame;
And but that thou standst there all old and weak,
Thou shouldst be taught what kind of plans are thine.
CHORUS Far as we dare to measure, both his words
And thine, O dipus, in wrath are said.
Not such as these we need, but this to see,
How best to do the bidding of the God.
TEIR. King though thou be, I claim an equal right
To make reply. Here I call no man lord:
For I am not thy slave, but Loxias.
Nor shall I stand on Creons patronage;
And this I say, since thou hast dared revile
My blindness, that thou seest, yet dost not see
Thy evil plight, nor where thou livst, nor yet
With whom thou dwellest, Knowst thou even this,
Whence thou art sprung? All ignorant thou sinnst
Against thine own, the living and the dead.
And soon a curse from mother and from sire
With fearful foot shall chase thee forth from us,
Now seeing all things clear, then all things dark.
And will not then each shore repeat thy wail,
And will not old Kithæron echoing ring
When thou discernst the marriage, fatal port,
To which thy prosprous voyage brought thy bark?
And other ills, in countless multitude,
Thou seest not yet, on thee and on thy seed
Shall fall alike. Vent forth thy wrath then loud,
On Creon and on me. There lives not man
Who wastes his life more wretchedly than thou.
What is the controversy? Note too that as the play progresses, what kind of evidence seems to deny the prophecy's authenticity?
How is that evidence thwarted?
Perhaps the conflict that most emerges in Oedipus is faith vs. _____? and_____?
III. THEMES AND MOTIFS:
A. personal pronouns: I and MY
C. vision - eyes
G. the 'three p's--purpose, passion, perception
H. rhetorical language: dramatic, verbal and situational irony, paradox
I. Philosophical themes. How do the following augment an understanding of the play:
See The Republic
Why is Athena weeping? A good source would be The first and second funeral orations of Pericles, and especially Thucydides' commentary between the two speeches. The excerpts are from Chapters VI and VII: (Note especially the bolded script).
...the Athenians gave a funeral at the public cost to those who had first fallen in this war. It was a custom of their ancestors, and the manner of it is as follows. Three days before the ceremony, the bones of the dead are laid out in a tent which has been erected; and their friends bring to their relatives such offerings as they please. In the funeral procession cypress coffins are borne in cars, one for each tribe; the bones of the deceased being placed in the coffin of their tribe. Among these is carried one empty bier decked for the missing, that is, for those whose bodies could not be recovered. Any citizen or stranger who pleases, joins in the procession: and the female relatives are there to wail at the burial. The dead are laid in the public sepulchre in the Beautiful suburb of the city, in which those who fall in war are always buried; with the exception of those slain at Marathon, who for their singular and extraordinary valour were interred on the spot where they fell. After the bodies have been laid in the earth, a man chosen by the state, of approved wisdom and eminent reputation, pronounces over them an appropriate panegyric; after which all retire. Such is the manner of the burying; and throughout the whole of the war, whenever the occasion arose, the established custom was observed. Meanwhile these were the first that had fallen, and Pericles, son of Xanthippus, was chosen to pronounce their eulogium. When the proper time arrived, he advanced from the sepulchre to an elevated platform in order to be heard by as many of the crowd as possible, and spoke as follows:
"Most of my predecessors in this place have commended him who made this speech part of the law, telling us that it is well that it should be delivered at the burial of those who fall in battle. For myself, I should have thought that the worth which had displayed itself in deeds would be sufficiently rewarded by honours also shown by deeds; such as you now see in this funeral prepared at the people's cost. And I could have wished that the reputations of many brave men were not to be imperilled in the mouth of a single individual, to stand or fall according as he spoke well or ill. For it is hard to speak properly upon a subject where it is even difficult to convince your hearers that you are speaking the truth. On the one hand, the friend who is familiar with every fact of the story may think that some point has not been set forth with that fullness which he wishes and knows it to deserve; on the other, he who is a stranger to the matter may be led by envy to suspect exaggeration if he hears anything above his own nature. For men can endure to hear others praised only so long as they can severally persuade themselves of their own ability to equal the actions recounted: when this point is passed, envy comes in and with it incredulity. However, since our ancestors have stamped this custom with their approval, it becomes my duty to obey the law and to try to satisfy your several wishes and opinions as best I may.
"I shall begin with our ancestors: it is both just and proper that they should have the honour of the first mention on an occasion like the present. They dwelt in the country without break in the succession from generation to generation, and handed it down free to the present time by their valour. And if our more remote ancestors deserve praise, much more do our own fathers, who added to their inheritance the empire which we now possess, and spared no pains to be able to leave their acquisitions to us of the present generation. Lastly, there are few parts of our dominions that have not been augmented by those of us here, who are still more or less in the vigour of life; while the mother country has been furnished by us with everything that can enable her to depend on her own resources whether for war or for peace. That part of our history which tells of the military achievements which gave us our several possessions, or of the ready valour with which either we or our fathers stemmed the tide of Hellenic or foreign aggression, is a theme too familiar to my hearers for me to dilate on, and I shall therefore pass it by. But what was the road by which we reached our position, what the form of government under which our greatness grew, what the national habits out of which it sprang; these are questions which I may try to solve before I proceed to my panegyric upon these men; since I think this to be a subject upon which on the present occasion a speaker may properly dwell, and to which the whole assemblage, whether citizens or foreigners, may listen with advantage.
"Our constitution does not copy the laws of neighbouring states; we are rather a pattern to others than imitators ourselves. Its administration favours the many instead of the few; this is why it is called a democracy. If we look to the laws, they afford equal justice to all in their private differences; if no social standing, advancement in public life falls to reputation for capacity, class considerations not being allowed to interfere with merit; nor again does poverty bar the way, if a man is able to serve the state, he is not hindered by the obscurity of his condition. The freedom which we enjoy in our government extends also to our ordinary life. There, far from exercising a jealous surveillance over each other, we do not feel called upon to be angry with our neighbour for doing what he likes, or even to indulge in those injurious looks which cannot fail to be offensive, although they inflict no positive penalty. But all this ease in our private relations does not make us lawless as citizens. Against this fear is our chief safeguard, teaching us to obey the magistrates and the laws, particularly such as regard the protection of the injured, whether they are actually on the statute book, or belong to that code which, although unwritten, yet cannot be broken without acknowledged disgrace.
"Further, we provide plenty of means for the mind to refresh itself from business. We celebrate games and sacrifices all the year round, and the elegance of our private establishments forms a daily source of pleasure and helps to banish the spleen; while the magnitude of our city draws the produce of the world into our harbour, so that to the Athenian the fruits of other countries are as familiar a luxury as those of his own.
"If we turn to our military policy, there also we differ from our antagonists. We throw open our city to the world, and never by alien acts exclude foreigners from any opportunity of learning or observing, although the eyes of an enemy may occasionally profit by our liberality; trusting less in system and policy than to the native spirit of our citizens; while in education, where our rivals from their very cradles by a painful discipline seek after manliness, at Athens we live exactly as we please, and yet are just as ready to encounter every legitimate danger. In proof of this it may be noticed that the Lacedaemonians do not invade our country alone, but bring with them all their confederates; while we Athenians advance unsupported into the territory of a neighbour, and fighting upon a foreign soil usually vanquish with ease men who are defending their homes. Our united force was never yet encountered by any enemy, because we have at once to attend to our marine and to dispatch our citizens by land upon a hundred different services; so that, wherever they engage with some such fraction of our strength, a success against a detachment is magnified into a victory over the nation, and a defeat into a reverse suffered at the hands of our entire people. And yet if with habits not of labour but of ease, and courage not of art but of nature, we are still willing to encounter danger, we have the double advantage of escaping the experience of hardships in anticipation and of facing them in the hour of need as fearlessly as those who are never free from them.
"Nor are these the only points in which our city is worthy of admiration. We cultivate refinement without extravagance and knowledge without effeminacy; wealth we employ more for use than for show, and place the real disgrace of poverty not in owning to the fact but in declining the struggle against it. Our public men have, besides politics, their private affairs to attend to, and our ordinary citizens, though occupied with the pursuits of industry, are still fair judges of public matters; for, unlike any other nation, regarding him who takes no part in these duties not as unambitious but as useless, we Athenians are able to judge at all events if we cannot originate, and, instead of looking on discussion as a stumbling-block in the way of action, we think it an indispensable preliminary to any wise action at all. Again, in our enterprises we present the singular spectacle of daring and deliberation, each carried to its highest point, and both united in the same persons; although usually decision is the fruit of ignorance, hesitation of reflection. But the palm of courage will surely be adjudged most justly to those, who best know the difference between hardship and pleasure and yet are never tempted to shrink from danger. In generosity we are equally singular, acquiring our friends by conferring, not by receiving, favours. Yet, of course, the doer of the favour is the firmer friend of the two, in order by continued kindness to keep the recipient in his debt; while the debtor feels less keenly from the very consciousness that the return he makes will be a payment, not a free gift. And it is only the Athenians, who, fearless of consequences, confer their benefits not from calculations of expediency, but in the confidence of liberality.
"In short, I say that as a city we are the school of Hellas, while I doubt if the world can produce a man who, where he has only himself to depend upon, is equal to so many emergencies, and graced by so happy a versatility, as the Athenian. And that this is no mere boast thrown out for the occasion, but plain matter of fact, the power of the state acquired by these habits proves. For Athens alone of her contemporaries is found when tested to be greater than her reputation, and alone gives no occasion to her assailants to blush at the antagonist by whom they have been worsted, or to her subjects to question her title by merit to rule. Rather, the admiration of the present and succeeding ages will be ours, since we have not left our power without witness, but have shown it by mighty proofs; and far from needing a Homer for our panegyrist, or other of his craft whose verses might charm for the moment only for the impression which they gave to melt at the touch of fact, we have forced every sea and land to be the highway of our daring, and everywhere, whether for evil or for good, have left imperishable monuments behind us. Such is the Athens for which these men, in the assertion of their resolve not to lose her, nobly fought and died; and well may every one of their survivors be ready to suffer in her cause.
"Indeed if I have dwelt at some length upon the character of our country, it has been to show that our stake in the struggle is not the same as theirs who have no such blessings to lose, and also that the panegyric of the men over whom I am now speaking might be by definite proofs established. That panegyric is now in a great measure complete; for the Athens that I have celebrated is only what the heroism of these and their like have made her, men whose fame, unlike that of most Hellenes, will be found to be only commensurate with their deserts. And if a test of worth be wanted, it is to be found in their closing scene, and this not only in cases in which it set the final seal upon their merit, but also in those in which it gave the first intimation of their having any. For there is justice in the claim that steadfastness in his country's battles should be as a cloak to cover a man's other imperfections; since the good action has blotted out the bad, and his merit as a citizen more than outweighed his demerits as an individual. But none of these allowed either wealth with its prospect of future enjoyment to unnerve his spirit, or poverty with its hope of a day of freedom and riches to tempt him to shrink from danger. No, holding that vengeance upon their enemies was more to be desired than any personal blessings, and reckoning this to be the most glorious of hazards, they joyfully determined to accept the risk, to make sure of their vengeance, and to let their wishes wait; and while committing to hope the uncertainty of final success, in the business before them they thought fit to act boldly and trust in themselves. Thus choosing to die resisting, rather than to live submitting, they fled only from dishonour, but met danger face to face, and after one brief moment, while at the summit of their fortune, escaped, not from their fear, but from their glory.
"So died these men as became Athenians. You, their survivors, must determine to have as unfaltering a resolution in the field, though you may pray that it may have a happier issue. And not contented with ideas derived only from words of the advantages which are bound up with the defence of your country, though these would furnish a valuable text to a speaker even before an audience so alive to them as the present, you must yourselves realize the power of Athens, and feed your eyes upon her from day to day, till love of her fills your hearts; and then, when all her greatness shall break upon you, you must reflect that it was by courage, sense of duty, and a keen feeling of honour in action that men were enabled to win all this, and that no personal failure in an enterprise could make them consent to deprive their country of their valour, but they laid it at her feet as the most glorious contribution that they could offer. For this offering of their lives made in common by them all they each of them individually received that renown which never grows old, and for a sepulchre, not so much that in which their bones have been deposited, but that noblest of shrines wherein their glory is laid up to be eternally remembered upon every occasion on which deed or story shall call for its commemoration. For heroes have the whole earth for their tomb; and in lands far from their own, where the column with its epitaph declares it, there is enshrined in every breast a record unwritten with no tablet to preserve it, except that of the heart. These take as your model and, judging happiness to be the fruit of freedom and freedom of valour, never decline the dangers of war. For it is not the miserable that would most justly be unsparing of their lives; these have nothing to hope for: it is rather they to whom continued life may bring reverses as yet unknown, and to whom a fall, if it came, would be most tremendous in its consequences. And surely, to a man of spirit, the degradation of cowardice must be immeasurably more grievous than the unfelt death which strikes him in the midst of his strength and patriotism!
"Comfort, therefore, not condolence, is what I have to offer to the parents of the dead who may be here. Numberless are the chances to which, as they know, the life of man is subject; but fortunate indeed are they who draw for their lot a death so glorious as that which has caused your mourning, and to whom life has been so exactly measured as to terminate in the happiness in which it has been passed. Still I know that this is a hard saying, especially when those are in question of whom you will constantly be reminded by seeing in the homes of others blessings of which once you also boasted: for grief is felt not so much for the want of what we have never known, as for the loss of that to which we have been long accustomed. Yet you who are still of an age to beget children must bear up in the hope of having others in their stead; not only will they help you to forget those whom you have lost, but will be to the state at once a reinforcement and a security; for never can a fair or just policy be expected of the citizen who does not, like his fellows, bring to the decision the interests and apprehensions of a father. While those of you who have passed your prime must congratulate yourselves with the thought that the best part of your life was fortunate, and that the brief span that remains will be cheered by the fame of the departed.
For it is only the love of honour that never grows old; and honour it is, not gain, as some would have it, that rejoices the heart of age and helplessness.
"Turning to the sons or brothers of the dead, I see an arduous struggle before you. When a man is gone, all are wont to praise him, and should your merit be ever so transcendent, you will still find it difficult not merely to overtake, but even to approach their renown. The living have envy to contend with, while those who are no longer in our path are honoured with a goodwill into which rivalry does not enter. On the other hand, if I must say anything on the subject of female excellence to those of you who will now be in widowhood, it will be all comprised in this brief exhortation. Great will be your glory in not falling short of your natural character; and greatest will be hers who is least talked of among the men, whether for good or for bad.
"My task is now finished. I have performed it to the best of my ability, and in word, at least, the requirements of the law are now satisfied. If deeds be in question, those who are here interred have received part of their honours already, and for the rest, their children will be brought up till manhood at the public expense: the state thus offers a valuable prize, as the garland of victory in this race of valour, for the reward both of those who have fallen and their survivors. And where the rewards for merit are greatest, there are found the best citizens.
"And now that you have brought to a close your lamentations for your relatives, you may depart."
_Second Year of the War - The Plague of Athens - Position and
Policy of Pericles...
Such was the funeral that took place during this winter, with which the first year of the war came to an end. In the first days of summer the Lacedaemonians and their allies, with two-thirds of their forces as before, invaded Attica, under the command of Archidamus, son of Zeuxidamus, King of Lacedaemon, and sat down and laid waste the country. Not many days after their arrival in Attica the plague first began to show itself among the Athenians. It was said that it had broken out in many places previously in the neighbourhood of Lemnos and elsewhere; but a pestilence of such extent and mortality was nowhere remembered. Neither were the physicians at first of any service, ignorant as they were of the proper way to treat it, but they died themselves the most thickly, as they visited the sick most often; nor did any human art succeed any better. Supplications in the temples, divinations, and so forth were found equally futile, till the overwhelming nature of the disaster at last put a stop to them altogether.
It first began, it is said, in the parts of Ethiopia above Egypt, and thence descended into Egypt and Libya and into most of the King's country. Suddenly falling upon Athens, it first attacked the population in Piraeus--which was the occasion of their saying that the Peloponnesians had poisoned the reservoirs, there being as yet no wells there--and afterwards appeared in the upper city, when the deaths became much more frequent. All speculation as to its origin and its causes, if causes can be found adequate to produce so great a disturbance, I leave to other writers, whether lay or professional; for myself, I shall simply set down its nature, and explain the symptoms by which perhaps it may be recognized by the student, if it should ever break out again. This I can the better do, as I had the disease myself, and watched its operation in the case of others.
That year then is admitted to have been otherwise unprecedentedly free from sickness; and such few cases as occurred all determined in this. As a rule, however, there was no ostensible cause; but people in good health were all of a sudden attacked by violent heats in the head, and redness and inflammation in the eyes, the inward parts, such as the throat or tongue, becoming bloody and emitting an unnatural and fetid breath. These symptoms were followed by sneezing and hoarseness, after which the pain soon reached the chest, and produced a hard cough. When it fixed in the stomach, it upset it; and discharges of bile of every kind named by physicians ensued, accompanied by very great distress. In most cases also an ineffectual retching followed, producing violent spasms, which in some cases ceased soon after, in others much later. Externally the body was not very hot to the touch, nor pale in its appearance, but reddish, livid, and breaking out into small pustules and ulcers. But internally it burned so that the patient could not bear to have on him clothing or linen even of the very lightest description; or indeed to be otherwise than stark naked. What they would have liked best would have been to throw themselves into cold water; as indeed was done by some of the neglected sick, who plunged into the rain-tanks in their agonies of unquenchable thirst; though it made no difference whether they drank little or much. Besides this, the miserable feeling of not being able to rest or sleep never ceased to torment them. The body meanwhile did not waste away so long as the distemper was at its height, but held out to a marvel against its ravages; so that when they succumbed, as in most cases, on the seventh or eighth day to the internal inflammation, they had still some strength in them. But if they passed this stage, and the disease descended further into the bowels, inducing a violent ulceration there accompanied by severe diarrhoea, this brought on a weakness which was generally fatal. For the disorder first settled in the head, ran its course from thence through the whole of the body, and, even where it did not prove mortal, it still left its mark on the extremities; for it settled in the privy parts, the fingers and the toes, and many escaped with the loss of these, some too with that of their eyes. Others again were seized with an entire loss of memory on their first recovery, and did not know either themselves or their friends.
But while the nature of the distemper was such as to baffle all description, and its attacks almost too grievous for human nature to endure, it was still in the following circumstance that its difference from all ordinary disorders was most clearly shown. All the birds and beasts that prey upon human bodies, either abstained from touching them (though there were many lying unburied), or died after tasting them. In proof of this, it was noticed that birds of this kind actually disappeared; they were not about the bodies, or indeed to be seen at all. But of course the effects which I have mentioned could best be studied in a domestic animal like the dog.
Such then, if we pass over the varieties of particular cases which were many and peculiar, were the general features of the distemper. Meanwhile the town enjoyed an immunity from all the ordinary disorders; or if any case occurred, it ended in this. Some died in neglect, others in the midst of every attention. No remedy was found that could be used as a specific; for what did good in one case, did harm in another. Strong and weak constitutions proved equally incapable of resistance, all alike being swept away, although dieted with the utmost precaution. By far the most terrible feature in the malady was the dejection which ensued when any one felt himself sickening, for the despair into which they instantly fell took away their power of resistance, and left them a much easier prey to the disorder; besides which, there was the awful spectacle of men dying like sheep, through having caught the infection in nursing each other.
This caused the greatest mortality. On the one hand, if they were afraid to visit each other, they perished from neglect; indeed many houses were emptied of their inmates for want of a nurse: on the other, if they ventured to do so, death was the consequence. This was especially the case with such as made any pretensions to goodness: honour made them unsparing of themselves in their attendance in their friends' houses, where even the members of the family were at last worn out by the moans of the dying, and succumbed to the force of the disaster. Yet it was with those who had recovered from the disease that the sick and the dying found most compassion. These knew what it was from experience, and had now no fear for themselves; for the same man was never attacked twice--never at least fatally. And such persons not only received the congratulations of others, but themselves also, in the elation of the moment, half entertained the vain hope that they were for the future safe from any disease whatsoever.
An aggravation of the existing calamity was the influx from the country into the city, and this was especially felt by the new arrivals. As there were no houses to receive them, they had to be lodged at the hot season of the year in stifling cabins, where the mortality raged without restraint. The bodies of dying men lay one upon another, and half-dead creatures reeled about the streets and gathered round all the fountains in their longing for water. The sacred places also in which they had quartered themselves were full of corpses of persons that had died there, just as they were; for as the disaster passed all bounds, men, not knowing what was to become of them, became utterly careless of everything, whether sacred or profane. All the burial rites before in use were entirely upset, and they buried the bodies as best they could. Many from want of the proper appliances, through so many of their friends having died already, had recourse to the most shameless sepultures: sometimes getting the start of those who had raised a pile, they threw their own dead body upon the stranger's pyre and ignited it; sometimes they tossed the corpse which they were carrying on the top of another that was burning, and so went off.
Nor was this the only form of lawless extravagance which owed its origin to the plague. Men now coolly ventured on what they had formerly done in a corner, and not just as they pleased, seeing the rapid transitions produced by persons in prosperity suddenly dying and those who before had nothing succeeding to their property. So they resolved to spend quickly and enjoy themselves, regarding their lives and riches as alike things of a day. Perseverance in what men called honour was popular with none, it was so uncertain whether they would be spared to attain the object; but it was settled that present enjoyment, and all that contributed to it, was both honourable and useful. Fear of gods or law of man there was none to restrain them. As for the first, they judged it to be just the same whether they worshipped them or not, as they saw all alike perishing; and for the last, no one expected to live to be brought to trial for his offences, but each felt that a far severer sentence had been already passed upon them all and hung ever over their heads, and before this fell it was only reasonable to enjoy life a little.
Such was the nature of the calamity, and heavily did it weigh on the Athenians; death raging within the city and devastation without. Among other things which they remembered in their distress was, very naturally, the following verse which the old men said had long ago been uttered:
A Dorian war shall come and with it death.
So a dispute arose as to whether dearth and not death had not been the word in the verse; but at the present juncture, it was of course decided in favour of the latter; for the people made their recollection fit in with their sufferings. I fancy, however, that if another Dorian war should ever afterwards come upon us, and a dearth should happen to accompany it, the verse will probably be read accordingly. The oracle also which had been given to the Lacedaemonians was now remembered by those who knew of it. When the god was asked whether they should go to war, he answered that if they put their might into it, victory would be theirs, and that he would himself be with them. With this oracle events were supposed to tally. For the plague broke out as soon as the Peloponnesians invaded Attica, and never entering Peloponnese (not at least to an extent worth noticing), committed its worst ravages at Athens, and next to Athens, at the most populous of the other towns. Such was the history of the plague.
After ravaging the plain, the Peloponnesians advanced into the Paralian region as far as Laurium, where the Athenian silver mines are, and first laid waste the side looking towards Peloponnese, next that which faces Euboea and Andros. But Pericles, who was still general, held the same opinion as in the former invasion, and would not let the Athenians march out against them...
During the whole time that the Peloponnesians were in Attica and the Athenians on the expedition in their ships, men kept dying of the plague both in the armament and in Athens. Indeed it was actually asserted that the departure of the Peloponnesians was hastened by fear of the disorder; as they heard from deserters that it was in the city, and also could see the burials going on. Yet in this invasion they remained longer than in any other, and ravaged the whole country, for they were about forty days in Attica...
After the second invasion of the Peloponnesians a change came over the spirit of the Athenians. Their land had now been twice laid waste; and war and pestilence at once pressed heavy upon them. They began to find fault with Pericles, as the author of the war and the cause of all their misfortunes, and became eager to come to terms with Lacedaemon, and actually sent ambassadors thither, who did not however succeed in their mission. Their despair was now complete and all vented itself upon Pericles. When he saw them exasperated at the present turn of affairs and acting exactly as he had anticipated, he called an assembly, being (it must be remembered) still general, with the double object of restoring confidence and of leading them from these angry feelings to a calmer and more hopeful state of mind. He accordingly came forward and spoke as follows:
"I was not unprepared for the indignation of which I have been the object, as I know its causes; and I have called an assembly for the purpose of reminding you upon certain points, and of protesting against your being unreasonably irritated with me, or cowed by your sufferings. I am of opinion that national greatness is more for the advantage of private citizens, than any individual well-being coupled with public humiliation. A man may be personally ever so well off, and yet if his country be ruined he must be ruined with it; whereas a flourishing commonwealth always affords chances of salvation to unfortunate individuals. Since then a state can support the misfortunes of private citizens, while they cannot support hers, it is surely the duty of every one to be forward in her defence, and not like you to be so confounded with your domestic afflictions as to give up all thoughts of the common safety, and to blame me for having counselled war and yourselves for having voted it. And yet if you are angry with me, it is with one who, as I believe, is second to no man either in knowledge of the proper policy, or in the ability to expound it, and who is moreover not only a patriot but an honest one. A man possessing that knowledge without that faculty of exposition might as well have no idea at all on the matter: if he had both these gifts, but no love for his country, he would be but a cold advocate for her interests; while were his patriotism not proof against bribery, everything would go for a price. So that if you thought that I was even moderately distinguished for these qualities when you took my advice and went to war, there is certainly no reason now why I should be charged with having done wrong.
"For those of course who have a free choice in the matter and whose fortunes are not at stake, war is the greatest of follies. But if the only choice was between submission with loss of independence, and danger with the hope of preserving that independence, in such a case it is he who will not accept the risk that deserves blame, not he who will. I am the same man and do not alter, it is you who change, since in fact you took my advice while unhurt, and waited for misfortune to repent of it; and the apparent error of my policy lies in the infirmity of your resolution, since the suffering that it entails is being felt by every one among you, while its advantage is still remote and obscure to all, and a great and sudden reverse having befallen you, your mind is too much depressed to persevere in your resolves. For before what is sudden, unexpected, and least within calculation, the spirit quails; and putting all else aside, the plague has certainly been an emergency of this kind. Born, however, as you are, citizens of a great state, and brought up, as you have been, with habits equal to your birth, you should be ready to face the greatest disasters and still to keep unimpaired the lustre of your name. For the judgment of mankind is as relentless to the weakness that falls short of a recognized renown, as it is jealous of the arrogance that aspires higher than its due. Cease then to grieve for your private afflictions, and address yourselves instead to the safety of the commonwealth.
"If you shrink before the exertions which the war makes necessary, and fear that after all they may not have a happy result, you know the reasons by which I have often demonstrated to you the groundlessness of your apprehensions. If those are not enough, I will now reveal an advantage arising from the greatness of your dominion, which I think has never yet suggested itself to you, which I never mentioned in my previous speeches, and which has so bold a sound that I should scarce adventure it now, were it not for the unnatural depression which I see around me. You perhaps think that your empire extends only over your allies; I will declare to you the truth. The visible field of action has two parts, land and sea. In the whole of one of these you are completely supreme, not merely as far as you use it at present, but also to what further extent you may think fit: in fine, your naval resources are such that your vessels may go where they please, without the King or any other nation on earth being able to stop them. So that although you may think it a great privation to lose the use of your land and houses, still you must see that this power is something widely different; and instead of fretting on their account, you should really regard them in the light of the gardens and other accessories that embellish a great fortune, and as, in comparison, of little moment. You should know too that liberty preserved by your efforts will easily recover for us what we have lost, while, the knee once bowed, even what you have will pass from you. Your fathers receiving these possessions not from others, but from themselves, did not let slip what their labour had acquired, but delivered them safe to you; and in this respect at least you must prove yourselves their equals, remembering that to lose what one has got is more disgraceful than to be balked in getting, and you must confront your enemies not merely with spirit but with disdain. Confidence indeed a blissful ignorance can impart, ay, even to a coward's breast, but disdain is the privilege of those who, like us, have been assured by reflection of their superiority to their adversary. And where the chances are the same, knowledge fortifies courage by the contempt which is its consequence, its trust being placed, not in hope, which is the prop of the desperate, but in a judgment grounded upon existing resources, whose anticipations are more to be depended upon.
"Again, your country has a right to your services in sustaining the glories of her position. These are a common source of pride to you all, and you cannot decline the burdens of empire and still expect to share its honours. You should remember also that what you are fighting against is not merely slavery as an exchange for independence, but also loss of empire and danger from the animosities incurred in its exercise. Besides, to recede is no longer possible, if indeed any of you in the alarm of the moment has become enamoured of the honesty of such an unambitious part. For what you hold is, to speak somewhat plainly, a tyranny; to take it perhaps was wrong, but to let it go is unsafe. And men of these retiring views, making converts of others, would quickly ruin a state; indeed the result would be the same if they could live independent by themselves; for the retiring and unambitious are never secure without vigorous protectors at their side; in fine, such qualities are useless to an imperial city, though they may help a dependency to an unmolested servitude.
"But you must not be seduced by citizens like these or angry with me--who, if I voted for war, only did as you did yourselves--in spite of the enemy having invaded your country and done what you could be certain that he would do, if you refused to comply with his demands; and although besides what we counted for, the plague has come upon us--the only point indeed at which our calculation has been at fault.
It is this, I know, that has had a large share in making me more unpopular than I should otherwise have been--quite undeservedly, unless you are also prepared to give me the credit of any success with which chance may present you. Besides, the hand of heaven must be borne with resignation, that of the enemy with fortitude; this was the old way at Athens, and do not you prevent it being so still. Remember, too, that if your country has the greatest name in all the world, it is because she never bent before disaster; because she has expended more life and effort in war than any other city, and has won for herself a power greater than any hitherto known, the memory of which will descend to the latest posterity; even if now, in obedience to the general law of decay, we should ever be forced to yield, still it will be remembered that we held rule over more Hellenes than any other Hellenic state, that we sustained the greatest wars against their united or separate powers, and inhabited a city unrivalled by any other in resources or magnitude. These glories may incur the censure of the slow and unambitious; but in the breast of energy they will awake emulation, and in those who must remain without them an envious regret. Hatred and unpopularity at the moment have fallen to the lot of all who have aspired to rule others; but where odium must be incurred, true wisdom incurs it for the highest objects. Hatred also is short-lived; but that which makes the splendour of the present and the glory of the future remains for ever unforgotten. Make your decision, therefore, for glory then and honour now, and attain both objects by instant and zealous effort: do not send heralds to Lacedaemon, and do not betray any sign of being oppressed by your present sufferings, since they whose minds are least sensitive to calamity, and whose hands are most quick to meet it, are the greatest men and the greatest communities."
Such were the arguments by which Pericles tried to cure the Athenians of their anger against him and to divert their thoughts from their immediate afflictions.
How do Thucydides' comments between the two orations outline the 'chuch-state'conflict in Athens?
Important reflection in Oedipus would be the choral odes. If they are read comparatively, what progression (or regression) occurs?